Collateral Damage: Sino-Soviet Rivalry and the Termination of the Sino-Vietnamese Alliance

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Andrew S. Erickson, Lyle J. McLaren, Mou, Elman, Sheldon H. Ma Yuan, translated by Herbert J. Venturino, MacKinnon, Jones, Works Received , You can find out more about which cookies we are using or switch them off in settings.

China Review International, vol. 18, no. 4 () – UH Press

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Any information you do submit will be stored securely and will never be passed on or sold to any third party. Shortly afterwards, six divisions of the Kampuchea Revolutionary Army advanced about 10 kilometers 6.

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On 16 December , the PAVN divisions, with support from elements of the Vietnam People's Air Force , crossed the border along several axes with the objective of forcing the Kampuchean Government to negotiate. On the battlefield, the Kampucheans quickly lost ground as their combat units were pushed back by the Vietnamese. By the end of December , Vietnam had won a clear military victory over Kampuchea, as Vietnamese formations marched through Svay Rieng Province and only stopped short of entering the provincial capital. Despite the ferocity of the Vietnamese retaliation, the Kampuchean Government remained defiant.

During the withdrawal, the Vietnamese military also evacuated thousands of prisoners and civilian refugees, including future leader Hun Sen. Instead of being sobered by the Vietnamese show of force, the Kampuchean government boasted that the Vietnamese withdrawal was a major victory for Democratic Kampuchea, comparing it to the "defeat of U. The Kampucheans went on further to proclaim that "our 6 January victory over the annexationist, Vietnamese aggressor enemy has given all of us greater confidence in the forces of our people and nation, in our Kampuchean Communist Party and our Kampuchean Revolutionary Army, and in our Party's line of people's war".

In addition to the disparity in population, there was also a great disparity between the fighting capabilities of the armed forces of the two countries. In , Vietnam was estimated to have , soldiers and tanks, supported by a 12,member air force with combat aircraft, including one squadron of light bombers. In comparison, Kampuchea had an army of 70,, only a few heavy tanks, armoured vehicles, and limited air capability. Against the backdrop of military clashes, between 9 January and 20 February , Vietnamese Deputy Foreign Minister Phan Hien made several trips to Beijing to hold discussions with representatives of the Kampuchean government, which ultimately proved to be fruitless.

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Although the Chinese and the Vietnamese were Cold War allies inwars against the French and the Americans, their alliance collapsedand they ultimately fought . Collateral Damage: Sino-Soviet Rivalry and the Termination of the Sino- Vietnamese Alliance [Nicholas Khoo] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying.

During that same period, military setbacks experienced by the Kampuchean Revolutionary Army in the Eastern Military Zone prompted Pol Pot to label the region as a "nest of traitors". In order to purge the Eastern Military Zone of those he perceived to have been contaminated by the Vietnamese, Pol Pot ordered military units from the Southwest Zone to move into eastern Kampuchea and eliminate the "hidden traitors". Unable to withstand an attack from the Kampuchea Government, So Phim committed suicide while his deputy Heng Samrin defected to Vietnam.

The Vietnamese government immediately rejected the demand. In response, two Kampuchean divisions penetrated up to 2 kilometers 1.

Epub Collateral Damage: Sino Soviet Rivalry And The Termination Of The Sino Vietnamese Alliance

In June , the Vietnamese Air Force started bombing Kampuchean positions along the border regions, flying about 30 bombing sorties per day and inflicting heavy casualties on the Kampucheans. By that stage in the conflict, most surviving leaders of the Eastern Military Zone had escaped into Vietnam, where they assembled at various secret camps with the purpose of forming a Vietnamese-backed "liberation army" to fight against the Khmer Rouge regime.

It concluded that the Khmer Rouge regime was a proxy of China, which had been trying to fill the power vacuum following the withdrawal of the United States. As such, China was identified as Vietnam's main enemy, and its client regime in Phnom Penh had to be removed by conventional military force, because the Vietnamese adaptation of the Maoist " people's war " doctrine had not been a success against the Khmer Rouge's security apparatus. Furthermore, instead of sending congratulatory messages as they had done in the previous years, the Vietnamese media changed their tone and began referring to the Kampuchean Government as the "Pol Pot-Ieng Sary clique" as the Kampuchean military continued their campaign in Vietnam. Again, the Vietnamese pushed the Kampuchean forces back into the provincial cities of Suong and Prey Veng and then pulled out.

However, as they had done before, the Kampuchean Army moved its artillery back towards the border and continued shelling Vietnamese villages as though nothing had happened. During the second half of , Vietnamese leaders devoted much of their energy towards the military campaign against the Khmer Rouge regime, by seeking political support from the Soviet Union. While Vietnam was laying the political foundation for the military campaign against Kampuchea, Soviet ships were reported to be unloading military hardware and ammunition in Cam Ranh Bay.

In a major turning point in the course of Soviet-Vietnamese and Sino-Vietnamese diplomatic relations, and ultimately the Vietnamese invasion of Kampuchea, a Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation was signed between Vietnam and the Soviet Union on 3 November , which guaranteed the former of vital Soviet military aid in the scenario that China intervened in the conflict. The Vietnamese government drafted , men into the military to replace earlier losses and augment its units along the border.

Vietnam also shifted three divisions based in Laos south towards the Laos-Kampuchea border. The PRGK regularly sent representatives abroad in search of support, before Vietnam abandoned the "people's war" concept in favour of a conventional military campaign. Not to be outdone by the Vietnamese military build-up, the Government of Democratic Kampuchea was busy strengthening its armed forces with Chinese support. In previous years, China had only provided the Kampuchean Revolutionary Army with a limited quantities of arms and ammunition, but as relations with Vietnam worsened in , Beijing established additional supply routes through Kampuchea and increased the volume of military hardware which travelled down each route.

Additionally, there were between 10, and 20, Chinese advisers in both military and civilian capacities, providing their support to the Khmer Rouge regime. On 21 December , Kampuchea's new-found strength was tested when a Vietnamese offensive, consisting of two divisions, crossed the border and moved towards the town of Kratie , while other support divisions were deployed along local routes to cut off the logistical tail of Kampuchean units. Heavy defeats on the battlefield prompted much of the Kampuchean leadership to evacuate towards the western region of the country. The Khmer Rouge leadership, with much of its political and military structures shattered by the Vietnamese invasion, was forced to take refuge in Thailand , where it was warmly welcomed by the Thai Government.

Despite the overwhelming economic challenges brought by the Khmer Rouge and the accompanying refugees, the Thai Government sheltered and protected the Khmer Rouge at Khao Larn camp in Trat Province. However, efforts to rebuild the country were severely hampered by the lack of educated and qualified personnel, as most educated people had either fled the country or had been murdered by the Khmer Rouge regime during the previous four years. By the end of the year, the new regime's attempts at nation-building were further challenged by several anti-Vietnamese resistance groups operating in the western regions of the country.

Shortly after the fall of Phnom Penh to Vietnamese forces and their Kampuchean allies in January , representatives of Democratic Kampuchea called for an emergency meeting of the United Nations Security Council , so Prince Norodom Sihanouk could present the deposed regime's case. As such, he demanded all UN countries suspend aid to Vietnam and not recognise the Vietnamese-installed regime.

However, the resolution was not approved due to opposition from the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia. Between 16—19 February Vietnam and the new Kampuchean regime held a summit meeting which concluded with the two countries signing a Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation. The Soviet government praised the PRK's "remarkable victory" and expressed its full support for the regime's advance towards socialism. Furthermore, the Soviets harshly criticised the Khmer Rouge regime's record of terror, which they implied had been imposed by China.

The former also notified the member nations of the UN Security Council that it was the sole legitimate representative of Kampuchea and its people. Accordingly, representatives of Democratic Kampuchea were allowed to be seated in the General Assembly, with strong support from China.

The Sino Soviet Split: Explained

Thailand, which shared an kilometer mile border with Kampuchea and has historically feared Vietnam's expansionism, demanded that Vietnam immediately remove its troops from Kampuchea so its people could elect a government free from foreign intervention.